Methods Of Seed Germination _VERIFIED_
Germination is the process a seed goes through when it begins to grow into a plant. Seeds germinate when the conditions are right for their variety - the environment must be at the right temperature and moisture and oxygen must be present. Some seeds will germinate easily by simply planting them in the soil, but others may need help from gardeners to germinate on schedule. Research your particular plant variety to find your seeds' germination needs.
Methods of Seed Germination
The seeds that are easiest to grow are those that simply germinate when you plant them in the correct environment. In general, larger seeds need to be planted deeper than smaller ones, but read the back of your seed packet to determine the correct planting depth for your seeds. Small seeds typically only have enough energy stored to put out a shoot. If they're buried too deep, the shoot will die before it reaches the surface.
Vegetables with large seeds like beans, corn and pumpkin and root crops like beets and carrots should be planted directly in the soil, according to experts at the University of Georgia Extension. Plant the seeds in prepared soil, firming the earth over them to make contact with the seed surface. Water the seeds and keep them moist. The seeds will germinate by themselves and sprout through the surface of the soil.
Some plants that are native to the Northern part of the country need a period of cold before they will start to germinate. While this happens in nature with seeds that fall to the ground, you will need to provide the cold for seeds you harvest yourself. Wrap the seeds in moist paper towels and place the towels in zip top plastic bags. Store the plastic bags in the refrigerator for the amount of time your seeds need cold stratification, from 30 to 120 days. Remove the seeds from the refrigerator after that time has passed and plant them in soil to germinate.
Some seeds come with a tough outer coating that is very difficult for a growing root to break through. While seeds get treated roughly in nature, being rubbed against rocks or falling from a height, collected seeds are treated in a more gentle manner. This won't allow water to penetrate the outer shell to start the germination process. Scarification is the method by which gardeners slightly damage the outer coating of a seed to allow the moisture easier access to the interior. Scrape the outer shell with sandpaper or a nail file, or nick the seed with a sharp knife before planting it in soil.
Some sprouts are consumed with just their root and a small stem attached and are never planted in a garden to grow into an adult plant. Germinate these seeds by the sprouting method. Rinse the seeds and place them in a sprouting container, either a jar with a drainage lid or a bag. Moisten the seeds frequently throughout the day for a number of days, depending on the type of seed you are sprouting. You will have sprouted seeds ready to eat within just a few days.
Many seeds can be sprouted simply by placing them on a substrate that retains water. Others will germinate better when completely surrounded by moisture, rather than simply being placed on top of the material.
(You can also fold up seeds within a piece of wet paper towel and place them within a container (such as a glass jar with lid only lightly screwed on) to retain moisture but still allow oxygen in. Then plant them in soil or use them in water-based growing systems as soon as the roots begin to grow.)
Remember, different seeds will have different requirements when it comes to germination. Some need darkness and some need more light. It is important to take these things into account when determining how exactly to sprout your seeds. However, this method will work for a number of common seeds.
If you do not have paper towels, you could also consider growing a number of seeds on a substrate of untreated waste paper and card. (For example, you could use toilet roll tubes and cardboard box material, pages from old sketchbooks etc..)
Many inexperienced gardeners think that the steps for how to germinate seeds are the same for all seeds. This is not the case. Knowing what is the best way to germinate seeds depends on what you are trying to grow and how to successfully germinate seeds varies greatly. In this article you will not find the steps of seed germination for the seeds you have. What you will find is an explanation for different terminology that might be used when you find the directions for seed germination that specifically applies to your seeds.
Seed germination is an important process that affects crop yield and quality. Therefore, understanding the molecular aspects of seed dormancy and germination is crucial to improving crop yield and quality. Seed germination is the growth of a plant from a seed.
The seed germination process involves the following five changes or stages: imbibition, respiration, the effect of light on seed germination, mobilization of reserves during seed germination, and the role of growth regulators and embryo axis development. The complete process of seed germination is done in the following steps;
1. During the initial germination stage, seeds take up water rapidly, resulting in swelling and softening of the seed coat at higher temperatures. This stage is called imbibition. It initiates the growth process by activating enzymes. The seed activates its internal physiology and begins to respire, produce protein, and metabolize stored food. It is an intermediate stage of seed germination.
1. Water: It is essential for the germination of seeds. Some seeds are extremely dry and require a substantial amount of water relative to the dry weight of the seed. Water plays an important role in seed germination. It helps to provide the hydration necessary for the vital activities of the protoplasm, provides dissolved oxygen for the growing embryo, softens the seed coats, and increases the permeability of the seed. It also helps in seed germination and converts insoluble nutrients into soluble forms for translocation to the embryo.
2. Oxygen is an essential energy source required for seed growth. It is required by the germinating seed for metabolism and is used as part of aerobic respiration until it manages to grow its green leaves. Oxygen can be found in the pores of soil particles, but if the seed is buried too deep, it will be deprived of this oxygen. Soil aeration is essential for seed germination as oxygen is essential for aerobic respiration, from which seeds obtain the energy required for embryo development.
3. Temperature: For a seed to germinate, it needs a medium temperature of around 25-30C. Different seeds require different optimum temperatures. Some seeds require temperatures between 5 and 40C. Seeds usually grow in a wide range of temperatures. However, fresh-harvested seeds of many plants germinate only within a narrow temperature range that widens only after ripening.
Old seed: Seeds have a use-by date. Check seed packets carefully and if in doubt, try a simple germination test to see if the seeds are good for sowing or throwing. Some vegetable seeds, such as Parsnips and Onions, keep for only one year, while others store well for five years or more. How you store the seed also has a profound effect on its viability. \
Too much water: As mentioned above, too much moisture can cause the seeds to rot. Make a watering schedule for the seeds until they germinate, usually once or twice a day. Once the seeds have germinated, cut back slightly when watering to avoid soggy conditions. Damping off occurs when germinated seeds flop and die from being too wet.
Soaking seeds moistens the embryo, helping it to break the shell and emerge faster. Exposure to water allows seeds to swell as water penetrates the seed coating, and the embryo begins to plump. Never soak the seeds for more than 24 hours, or it may cause them to rot. After 24 hours of soaking, plant them immediately in soil, whether in a pot or on the ground. This method works with all seeds, but it works best with larger seeds, like Beans or Squash seeds.
Dampen a paper towel and then put it in the bag. Place the seeds on one side of the bag, pressing them down with a paper towel. Close the bag tightly and hang it in the window using tape. Growing seeds in a paper towel is a soil-less way to get your plants started quickly. The secret to successful seed germination is using a bag for the most efficient germination. It saves time, gives better results, and is less expensive.
An easy method to get seeds to germinate faster is to soak them in a shallow container filled with warm tap water for 24 hours. Do not soak seeds for more than 24 hours as they may rot. Plant the seeds immediately in moist soil.
Seed germination can be defined as the basic process by which different plant species grow from a seed into a plant. This process affects both the yield and quality of the crop. When the right factors are present, the seeds begin to germinate. The above information helps to know how to germinate seeds and fix the most common seed germination problems.
Then place another moist (not soaking or dripping wet) paper towel on top of the seeds. Gently press the paper towel down on top of the seeds to ensure they are completely enveloped between the paper towels.
2. Grow Medium GerminationAnother common germinating method is to place the seeds directly into a grow medium. However, you must be careful with this method; seeds are very sensitive to nutrients, and germinating them in a nutrient-rich environment can actually cause them damage.
Some root-parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanche, Phelipanche or Striga genus represent one of the most destructive and intractable weed problems to agricultural production in both developed and developing countries. Compared with most of the other weeds, parasitic weeds are difficult to control by conventional methods because of their life style. The main difficulties that currently limit the development of successful control methods are the ability of the parasite to produce a tremendous number of tiny seeds that may remain viable in the soil for more than 15 years. Seed germination requires induction by stimulants present in root exudates of host plants. Researches performed on these minute seeds are until now tedious and time-consuming because germination rate is usually evaluated in Petri-dish by counting germinated seeds under a binocular microscope.